Like anything else, disagreements and arguments can be broken down into their atomic components. There are three elements in the periodic table of disagreements.
Disagreements over Facts: The sky is blue. The sky is not blue.
Disagreements over Values: Freedom is more important than happiness. Happiness is more important than freedom.
Disagreements over Language: If a tree falls in the forest, it makes a sound. If a tree falls in the forest, it does not make a sound.